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Carolyn Fischer

Research Fellow

Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Research field
Spatial Economics
Environmental Economics, Innovation, Law and Economics, Microeconomic Theory, Resource Economics, Trade


Carolyn Fischer is Professor of Environmental Economics at VU-Amsterdam and holds the Canada 150 Research Chair in Climate Economics, Innovation, and Policy at the University of Ottawa. She is also a senior fellow with Resources for the Future, a Tinbergen Institute affiliate, and a fellow of the CESifo Research Network.

List of publications

Böhringer, C. and Fischer, C. (2023). Tax, kill or bill: An analysis of unilateral CO2 price floor options in multilateral emissions trading systems Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 119:.

Fischer, C., Hübler, M. and Schenker, O. (2021). More birds than stones – A framework for second-best energy and climate policy adjustments Journal of Public Economics, 203:1--18.

Cosbey, A., Droege, S., Fischer, C. and Munnings, C. (2019). Developing Guidance for Implementing Border Carbon Adjustments: Lessons, Cautions, and Research Needs from the Literature Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, 13(1):3--22.

Fischer, C., Greaker, M. and Rosendahl, K.E. (2018). Strategic technology policy as a supplement to renewable energy standards Resource and Energy Economics, 51:84--98.

Fischer, C., Mao, B. and Shawhan, D. (2018). Trade between mass- and rate-based regulatory regimes: Bad for emissions? Energy Economics, 73:326--336.

Fischer, C., Greaker, M. and Rosendahl, K.E. (2017). Robust technology policy against emission leakage: The case of upstream subsidies Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 84:44--61.

Fischer, C. and Salant, StephenW. (2017). Balancing the carbon budget for oil: The distributive effects of alternative policies European Economic Review, 99:191--215.

Fischer, C. (2017). Environmental Protection for Sale: Strategic Green Industrial Policy and Climate Finance Environmental and Resource Economics, 66(3):553--575.

Böhringer, C., Fischer, C. and Rosendahl, K.E. (2014). Cost-effective unilateral climate policy design: Size matters Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 67(3):318--339.

Fischer, C. and Lyon, ThomasP. (2014). Competing Environmental Labels Journal of Economics and Management Strategy, 23(3):692--716.

Fischer, C. and Heutel, G. (2013). Environmental macroeconomics: Environmental policy, business cycles, and directed technical change Annual Review of Resource Economics, 5:197--210.

Fischer, C. and Fox, AlanK. (2012). Comparing policies to combat emissions leakage: Border carbon adjustments versus rebates Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 64(2):199--216.

Fischer, C. and Sterner, T. (2012). Climate Policy, Uncertainty, and the Role of Technological Innovation Journal of Public Economic Theory, 14(2):285--309.

Fischer, C. and Fox, AlanK. (2012). Climate policy and fiscal constraints: Do tax interactions outweigh carbon leakage? Energy Economics, 34(SUPPL.2):.

Anderson, SorenT., Parry, I.W.H., Sallee, JamesM. and Fischer, C. (2011). Automobile fuel economy standards: Impacts, efficiency, and alternatives Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, 5(1):89--108.

Fischer, C. (2011). Market power and output-based refunding of environmental policy revenues Resource and Energy Economics, 33(1):212--230.

Fischer, C. and Springborn, M. (2011). Emissions targets and the real business cycle: Intensity targets versus caps or taxes Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 62(3):352--366.

Fischer, C. and Fox, AlanK. (2011). The role of trade and competitiveness measures in US climate policy American Economic Review, 101(3):258--262.

Fischer, C., Muchapondwa, E. and Sterner, T. (2011). A Bio-Economic Model of Community Incentives for Wildlife Management Under CAMPFIRE Environmental and Resource Economics, 48(2):303--319.

Fischer, C. (2010). Renewable Portfolio Standards: When Do They Lower Energy Prices? Energy Journal, 31(1):101--119.

Sanchirico, JamesN., Albers, HeidiJ., Fischer, C. and Coleman, C. (2010). Spatial management of invasive species: Pathways and policy options Environmental and Resource Economics, 45(4):517--535.

Albers, HeidiJ., Fischer, C. and Sanchirico, JamesN. (2010). Invasive species management in a spatially heterogeneous world: Effects of uniform policies Resource and Energy Economics, 32(4):483--499.

Fischer, C. and Mavroidis, PetrosC. (2010). Global Warming and the World Trading System, by Gary Clyde Hufbauer, Steve Charnovitz, and Jisun Kim Journal of Economic Literature, 48(3):777--779.

Fischer, C. and Laxminarayan, R. (2010). Managing partially protected resources under uncertainty Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 59(2):129--141.

Fischer, C., Herrnstadt, E. and Morgenstern, R. (2009). Understanding errors in EIA projections of energy demand Resource and Energy Economics, 31(3):198--209.

Fischer, C. (2009). Does trade help or hinder the conservation of natural resources? Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, 4(1):103--121.

Fischer, C. (2008). Comparing flexibility mechanisms for fuel economy standards Energy Policy, 36(8):3116--3124.

Fischer, C. (2008). Emissions pricing, spillovers, and public investment in environmentally friendly technologies Energy Economics, 30(2):487--502.

de Coninck, H., Fischer, C., Newell, RichardG. and Ueno, T. (2008). International technology-oriented agreements to address climate change Energy Policy, 36(1):335--356.

Fischer, C. and Newell, RichardG. (2008). Environmental and technology policies for climate mitigation Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 55(2):142--162.

Fischer, C., Harrington, W. and Parry, IanW.H. (2007). Should automobile fuel economy standards be tightened? Energy Journal, 28(4):1--29.

Bernard, AlainL., Fischer, C. and Fox, AlanK. (2007). Is there a rationale for output-based rebating of environmental levies? Resource and Energy Economics, 29(2):83--101.

Fischer, C. and Fox, AlanK. (2007). Output-based allocation of emissions permits for mitigating tax and trade interactions Land Economics, 83(4):575--599.

Fischer, C. (2006). Multinational taxation and international emissions trading Resource and Energy Economics, 28(2):139--159.

Fischer, C. and Laxminarayan, R. (2005). Sequential development and exploitation of an exhaustible resource: Do monopoly rights promote conservation? Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 49(3):500--515.

Fischer, C. (2005). On the importance of the supply side in demand-side management Energy Economics, 27(1):165--180.

Fischer, C. (2005). Competition in markets for depletable resources with setup costs Environmental and Resource Economics, 30(3):243--257.

Margolis, M., Shogren, JasonF. and Fischer, C. (2005). How trade politics affect invasive species control Ecological Economics, 52(3 SPEC. ISS.):305--313.

Fischer, C. (2004). The complex interactions of markets for endangered species products Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 48(2):926--953.

Fischer, C. and Laxminarayan, R. (2004). Monopoly extraction of an exhaustible resource with two markets Canadian Journal of Economics, 37(1):178--188.

Fischer, C., Parry, IanW.H. and Pizer, WilliamA. (2003). Instrument choice for environmental protection when technological innovation is endogenous Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 45(3):523--545.

Parry, IanW.H., Pizer, WilliamA. and Fischer, C. (2003). How Large are the Welfare Gains from Technological Innovation Induced by Environmental Policies? Journal of Regulatory Economics, 23(3):237--255.

Fischer, C. (2001). Read this paper later: Procrastination with time-consistent preferences Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 46(3):249--269.